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ISSN : 2093-5587(Print)
ISSN : 2093-1409(Online)
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences Vol.34 No.1 pp.67-73

Daylight Observations of Venus with Naked Eye in the Goryeosa

Ki-Won Lee


In this paper, we investigate the observations of Venus in daytime that are recorded in the Goryeosa (History of the Goryeo Dynasty, A.D. 918-1392). There are a total of 167 accounts of such observations in this historical book, spanning a period of 378 yr (from 1014 to 1392). These include six accounts where the days of the observation are not specified and two accounts where the phase angles are outside the calculation range of the equation used in our study. We analyze the number distribution of 164 accounts in 16 yr intervals covering the period from 1023 to 1391. We find that this distribution shows its minimum at around 1232, when the Goryeo dynasty moved the capital to the Ganghwa Island because of the Mongol invasion, and its maximum at around 1390, about the time when the dynasty fell. In addition, we calculate the azimuth, altitude, solar elongation, and apparent magnitude of Venus at sunset for 159 observations, excluding the eight accounts mentioned above, using the DE 406 ephemeris and modern astronomical algorithms. We find that the average elongation and magnitude of Venus on the days of those accounts were ~40° and -4.5, respectively, whereas the minimum magnitude was -3.8. The results of this study are useful for estimating the practical conditions for observing Venus in daylight with the naked eye and they also provide additional insight into the corresponding historical accounts contained in the Goryeosa.